Sussex County Delaware Beach Area Towns and Villages are Unique and Historic! |

This in an area of much history…I love Sussex County Delaware. I am native born, multigenerational and proud to be one of those who, as they say; “are from here”.The earliest records of our family show we were here well before the Mayflower arrived in 1620; some our ancestors were here in the early 1500’s or before; when the only records here were all the family Bibles that each family kept.In this area, we were populated by those escaping religious persecution in Europe. This heritage has much to do with the names and character of our area. Many local ancestors fled Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Isle of Man, when Henry IV dethroned Richard II and the subsequent political and religious purge sent religious zealots to places out of the reach and care of England. I’ve learned that many were foragers only and did not farm or hunt, only fished, from directions they read in the Bible.Some of these folks evolved into local farmers, plain woodsmen, wild plant pickers and eaters, herbalists, tanners, soap makers, hunters, and under all they were missionaries in the areas of what are now Lewes, Milton, Angola, Long Neck, Broadkill, Nassau, Cool Spring, Whitesville, Quakertown and Red Mill Pond.These folks worshipped only God, the Christ, and read only the most original scriptures or were as they say just PLAIN… This was all deadly illegal under the British rule, except as licensed by the King. Others were burned, hung, drawn, quartered, drowned slowly and otherwise tortured to death publicly and imprisoned in terrible conditions meanwhile.I was raised at what is now Eagle Crest Aerodrome, on what was early known as the White Farms, near Milton. I started school at Milton school then went to Lewes School and graduated 1967 from Lewes School. Since then I’ve lived in several areas of what we locals sometimes call “Saltwater Sussex” and what I used to call The Henlopen Quadrant; that is the locations within 25 miles of Cape Henlopen.The Whites, Taylors, McIntires, Potters, Fishers, Maulls, Brittinghams, etc. were of my mother’s family and were or descended from the earliest teachers and missionaries here that I know of. Many of these early settlers established mills and mill ponds where (perhaps) America’s first manufacturing industry, that of grinding oak bark and developing it into tannin was done. This damming of the creeks to make mill power, caused our first swellings of little creeks and springs into what became larger mill ponds. Red Mill Pond was such an early example, as was Milton Pond, Millsboro Pond, and several smaller ones such as Beaver Dam Pond, and Saw Mill Pond, etc. As the mills were abandoned and dams burst, many of these ponds receded and disappeared.These “plain people” as they were often known, to themselves, were just plain and not bound to any king, or religion, except God and the Bible in it’s original languages and in early German. I recall some hand written Bibles, in ink and pen, Bibles in our family home at what is now Eagle Crest Road and Route One.Route 1 by the way was the first road in what is now America and connected all the original settlements, although it was first useful only on foot, later by mule and horse. Much later by wagon. There were many fords and later bridges as road one, traversing this land from south to north, crossed the many creeks, streams and rivers that fed from the land to the Delaware Bay.Cape Henlopen is the anchor point of Salt Water Sussex County, where the Delaware Bay meets and flows into the Atlantic Ocean at Lewes. When you stand at Cape Henlopen Point, you can see the razor line of color change where the dark waters of the Bay meet the blue waters of the ocean in a diagonal line extending from the beach out into the sea. This darkness of the waters is caused by the nutrient rich, therefore muddy, waters that seep out of the great marsh which borders almost all of Delaware.This Great Marsh is, even today, one of the most ecologically rich and diverse lands in the world; were thousands of native plants and numerous animals live. Here they have no native predators to speak of. A most wonderful book about this Marsh is Progger: A Life on the Marsh, by Tony Florio. Only in the last few years have predators plied these lands, feral dogs and cats loosed from the tourists, visitors and new townspeople into our great marsh, no longer household pets, these thousands of wild cats and dogs, bring a deadly new addition to the lands.We have, here in Saltwater Sussex, a conspicuous absence of poisonous snakes. The early Plain People were unique in that they learned to live here year ’round, (although the American Indians did not) especially in and along this fertile great marsh. These Plain People gave this land and any others who came here their full admiration, acceptance and friendliness. They loved and were loved by the natives who browsed, hunted and fished here. This character caused them to be known as kind, strong, courageous and resourceful — and thus they gained the trust and admiration of these natives.Because of the relatively large number of missionary settlers here, and the prosperity they created by ingeniously trading goods they made and services to the native peoples – along with the good will that was enjoyed among all… there was much peace between the native hunters and fishers with these Plain folks.This region was found to be of great importance to the Dutch and English. The plain folks tended to stay well away from each other as a show of privacy and independence. They did not ordinarily join the dangerous, politically combative and disease ridden towns for generations after these towns were established here – as the area colonized. In fact there were many of the Colonial towns that died out or were burned out by the natives – because of the unhealthy conditions and attitudes that prevailed. The Plain Folk recorded the facts. Thus we have numerous histories of places where everyone was killed or died and these histories were written by the local Plain Folk.Lewes: This region was hotly contested by the Swedish, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and English. The first officially recorded settlement here at the beach, was established by Dutch patroons, or proprietors, in partnership with the Dutch navigator David Pietersen de Vries; it was called Swanendael and was established (1631) on the site of the town of Lewes. However, within a year it was destroyed by a Native American attack. This attack notwithstanding, the Native Americans were generally friendly and willing to trade with the newcomers. And, notably the native people, who seldom lived here but hunted and fished here during the non mosquito seasons, got along well with the Plain People and not the settlers.The Dutch West India Company, organized in 1623, was more interested in trade on the South River, as the Delaware was called at that time, than in settlement (the North River was the Hudson, in the Dutch colony of New Netherland). Several Dutchmen, interested in settling the area, put their services at the disposal of Sweden and colonized the area for that country. The best known of these was Peter Minuit, who had been governor of New Amsterdam (later New York). In 1637-38 Minuit directed the colonizing expedition for the Swedes that organized New Sweden . Fort Christina was founded in 1638 on the site of Wilmington and was named in honor of the queen of Sweden. The colony grew with the arrival of Swedish, Finnish, and Dutch settlers.The waters of the Delaware Bay are tributary and watershed runoff from the Great Marsh and all the little streams, creeks, rivers and wetlands of eastern Delaware and New Jersey as well as the effluent of the Delaware River flowing down from Pennsylvania and New York. Thus the darker waters of the Delaware Bay are that way as a result the particles and filtered organic matter from the Great Marsh and wetland areas. These darker waters then flow generally south along the Rehoboth, Dewey, area beaches until the clear waters of the Indian River and Bay pushing out the Indian River Inlet force the darker waters away from the coast and out to sea. Thus the ocean water on the beaches south of Indian River Inlet tends to be far clearer than that north of the inlet.Lewes is known as the First Town in the First State, because of this Dutch settlement, even though it didn’t survive. Lewes was the first town settled in Delaware and Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution of The United States – hence the title we proudly proclaim for Lewes — First Town in the First State. Lewes was first settled by the Dutch and Swedes. There are numerous books on the history of Lewes in the local book stores, perhaps as many as two dozen different historical and entertaining books on this fair town. Each has a different version of history to some extent. shows over a hundred.Lewes has become one of the most historically sensitive and aware towns in the area. Some people still call Lewes by another older name Lewes Towne. Some of our visitors have nicknamed it Williamsburg North with a bit of a wink and a smile to go with their love. We have a wonderful little downtown along Second Street, Pilottown road, Market Street, Savannah Road and King’s Highway. There are numerous specialty shops, restaurants and even the famous King’s Ice Cream shop on 2nd St. to entice our numerous walkers. Lewes is, more than any other town in our region, a great place to walk all over town as you discover the little nooks, shops, businesses and trades that are usually in historically attractive buildings. In is not unusual to see hundreds of people walking the streets in Lewes, even in the off season. In the summer season, spring and fall, it is customary to see thousands of people and families slowly walking and looking at our old homes, businesses, museums and scenic views.The Lewes Harbor is a wonderfully scenic deep water port, the only one in eastern Sussex County. There are sailboats and larger boats moored along the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal from the Roosevelt Inlet at the north end of Lewes down to the Canal Bridge where Kings Highway and Savannah Road combine to cross the drawbridge and connect historic Lewes to Lewes Beach.Lewes Harbor as taken from The Lighthouse Restaurant.Lewes Beach is more recently developed than the town of Lewes. The homes of Lewes Beach have seldom been there longer than 50 years and many of the older, smaller fixer-upper homes are being removed and larger modern homes built on the lots there. The lands of Lewes Beach, all of the lots, are owned by the town of Lewes. Residents, property owners and businesses get a 99 year lease which is renewable. This lease was originally supposed to be only for the growing of rabbits but, without changing the terms or law, is now used to support many lovely beach homes. The modest lease fee is paid to the town of Lewes annually. The lots in Lewes do “sell”, actually the leases are transferred to the new land tenants at the same price as land would be deeded.Cape Henlopen State Park includes most of the bay front and ocean front land and beaches around Lewes. There are some communities; Pilot Point, Cape Shores, Port Lewes, and the Delaware River and Bay Pilots Association along the Bay. The Cape Henlopen State Park was once Fort Miles the Army base. Fort Miles was set up between World War I and World War II to protect the Delaware Bay shipping traffic from the German submarines. Now the thousands of acres of beach, dunes, wetlands and woods that stretch between Lewes and Rehoboth are all part of the park and the military buildings have other beachy uses.William Penn was a much loved European and politically active adherant of plain folks that remained under the yoke of England, while hiding their distaste for the religions of the Kings and meeting secretly. Penn was convicted of various political crimes and exiled over here were it was supposed other like minded plain folks already resided in horrid and deadly and uncivilized residency with the Indians. This land of Penn’s exile, named Penn’s woods or Pennsylvania was in deference to his social and political popularity. In 1682 a duke transferred the Lewes claim to Penn, who wanted to secure a navigable water route from his new colony of Pennsylvania to the ocean. The three counties of Delaware thus became the Three Lower Counties (or Territories, as Penn called them) of Pennsylvania. The individual counties were called New Castle, Kent (formerly St. Jones), and Sussex (formerly Hoornkill, also known as Whorekill, and Deale). The English proprietors of Maryland contested Penn’s claim to Delaware, and the boundary dispute was not fully settled until 1750.The inhabitants of the Delaware counties were at first unwilling to be joined to the “radical” and very political Quaker colony of Pennsylvania or to have their affairs settled in Philadelphia. They finally accepted the Penn charter of 1701 after provisions were added giving the Three Lower Counties the right to a separate assembly, which first met in 1704. Delaware maintained quasi-autonomy until the American Revolution. The two colonies maintained strong ties, however, and two of Delaware’s leading statesmen during the Revolution—Thomas McKean and John Dickinson—were also prominent in Pennsylvania affairs.Rehoboth is the next historic town south of Lewes. Rehoboth Beach is known as the Nation’s Summer Capital; because so many of the power elite of Washington D.C. vacation and visit here. Rehoboth Beach; The Nation’s Summer Capital has another name as well – Weekend Washington, a name popular in particular with the college crowd from George Washington University in downtown D.C. The traffic flow from Washington D.C. is so heavy that it is not unusual for people to spend 4 to 8 hours each Friday or Saturday driving the 100 miles from the city to our beach. Rehoboth was originally settled as a result of it being a place for Christian Camp Revivals where preachers and parishioners would come to renew vows to God and to bath in the waters of the sea for baptisms and spiritual and physical health renewal. They did not come during the mosquito seasons for many years and when they did start coming more in the summer would wear head to toe coverings for reasons of modesty and protection from the flies, gnats, and fog like swarms of mosquitoes.We are a focal point for D.C. area college students to come for beach and fun. As these students age many join the highest ranks of government and it’s myriad consultants; and they still come to the beach here in Rehoboth, Dewey and Bethany. The universities of Washington D.C. are noted for being the power training bases for this nation’s and the world’s social and ruling elite. The Georgetown University Department of Government, in cooperation with the School for Summer and Continuing Education, offers undergraduate students a unique opportunity to spend an exciting semester as an intern in the nation’s capital, while living and studying on the campus of one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the United States. Students gain valuable practical work experience necessary to be competitive in today’s job market, while enriching their academic resume with undergraduate credits from Georgetown University. G.U. is known for its tough standards, especially at the Law school and the Medical school. This pressure is continued for the summer sessions as well. These students will become some of the finest and most famous Doctors and Lawyers in America. Almost 100% of these G.U. students exit the downtown campus on Friday after lunch and drive straight to Rehoboth and Dewey Beach. The party starts when they start the car, or in most cases the Jeep or SUV.George Washington University sprawls throughout downtown D.C. along Pennsylvania Avenue and over toward the Watergate. G.W. or G.W.U. either one is correct, is noted as the place where the future leaders of our country are educated and interned. The school is running over with students whose parents rule and work on “The Hill”, Capital Hill in D.C. G.W. students are often some of the first to escape the city and speed toward the Beach, especially Dewey Beach.As the student guide for prestigious American University in DC says: there are many resort areas along the coast, such as Bethany Beach, Fenwick Island, Rehoboth Beach, known locally as the “nation’s summer capital” because of its popularity among Washington, D.C. residents. The summers are hot and humid in Delaware and the beach is the major recreation area. American University is famed for educating the future leaders of the world. Many of the students are expected to help rule their particular countries after graduation. For this reason among others, the sitting President of The United States gives the Commencement address at A.U. each June – no other school in the world can make that claim.A.U. is a huge sprawling campus that meanders all over the D.C. area. These thousands of well connected students From G.W.U., G.U., A.U., and other DC area schools, are particularly expected to lead their individual countries, including ours, or if they are not quite that well connected they are expected to intern and then work as executives in one of the Embassies, the European Union, the International Chamber of Commerce, World Court, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, Peace Corps, World Bank, World Health Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Trade Organization, or the United Nations. So when you see some “kid” at the beach in Rehoboth or Dewey – pay attention, it is just possible that these “kids” may be ruling and running countries and making international headlines in a few years.Dewey Beach is noted for it’s motto’s “It’s A Dewey Thing”, “Just Dewey It”, “Live IS a Beach”, “Dewey – A Way of Life” and more. Dewey Beach is the primary party spot for well financed singles with fit bodies. Dewey is the Happy Hunting Ground for the high pressured professionals of the DC area. Many have pseudonyms that are used in Dewey to protect their other place identities. Some of these Dewey People start living the summers in a Dewey House in college and never stop. There are Group Houses now where most of the participants, the partiers are in their 40s and 50s and act like they are still in their 20s – and always will. There are over two dozen party houses in Dewey on the Web alone. This represents several hundred singles that spend most of their disposable income in Dewey – and that can be substantial.Dewey Beach is known around the world for the famous Rusty Rudder Restaurant and Ruddertowne. There is also the famous or more properly infamous Starboard, the rowdy Bottle and Cork, The Waterfront, and The Lighthouse. The customary Dewey lifestyle is to party all night, get up and run early then go to the beach and sleep off the night before while tanning. Then perhaps a little volley ball, some more running and then checking out the other “hard bodies” for someone to hook-up with for the nights partying and on it goes. The “Professionals” are able to keep this up for the Hundred Days during college and then after employment, usually in DC, they try to keep up the same average action on just the weekends and recuperate during the week. There is a famous quote, no longer legal to put in rental ads for beach houses, “4 bedrooms – sleeps 50” and the tenants try to stretch even that occupancy. Beds are often used for sleeping anyway, except by accident. Do you have an idea of what “A Dewey Way of Life” might be?Bethany Beach is just a few miles down The Ocean Highway or The Coastal Highway or Route One or Delaware Sea Shore Highway or whatever name they change it to next week. The ride from Dewey Beach is a pleasant and beautiful one of only a few miles but the two towns are universes apart in difference. Bethany Beach is “The Quiet Place”, “The Family Resort”, and “The Quiet Resort” and is a town with little going on, outside of the homes. There is very little commercialism and lots of just staying at home or in some cases going to the beach or the boardwalk. Bethany Beach and South Bethany, Delaware are nestled between the Atlantic Ocean and the inland bays. Bethany Beach and South Bethany Beach are situated on the Atlantic Ocean just south of Rehoboth Beach and Dewey Beach, Delaware, and north of Fenwick Island, Delaware and Ocean City, Maryland. Each of these little beach towns is a world different from each other one.Fenwick Island is the southern-most town in the state of Delaware and is nestled between the ocean and the bay. Fenwick Island was incorporated in 1953 and is also locally referred to as “The Quiet Resort.” This little town has maintained its own unique quality, charm and small-town atmosphere. The pristine beaches and bays offer a myriad of recreational opportunities to please even the most discerning vacationer. Activities can range from boating, sailing, water skiing, fishing to biking. The ocean water is the clearest and cleanest in the state. The Fenwick beaches are the most spacious and least used and the primary activity outside of staying home is just lying on the beach for that perfect tan. Come see how relaxing Fenwick Island can be for you and your family. Outdoor activities are backed up with friendly home-town services. Family operated motels and restaurants provide the ultimate in comfort.Let’s NOT forget some of the lesser known beaches of Southern Delaware – those hidden little places that not even the locals know much about. These are all along the Delaware Bay, north of Lewes. They are in order: Broadkill Beach and some call it the old name Broadkiln Beach; next to the north are Prime Hook Beach, Slaughter Beach and then Bowers Beach. These little beaches, each one with a unique personality of its own have no commercial establishments to amount to anything, no boardwalks and very little rental property market. The homes are mostly very modest older homes but that is changing fast.Broadkill Beach, where I had an office for several years, was originally just squatters who did not own the land but had little “cottages” there, usually made of spare pieces of lumber and stuff picked up in the personal junk piles of the farmers who spent time there. Broadkill Beach still has some incredibly unique and sometimes ugly homes scattered among the beautiful modern showcases. Gradually the older homes are being removed by the new owners and larger and usually spectacular homes put in their place. Prices in Broadkill are less than half of those in Lewes, sometimes far less than half! There are no lifeguards, no beach cleaning, no town hall, no police, no mayor or government of any kind and few restrictions. This is a great fishing community. There are thousands of prehistoric Horse Shoe Crabs that mate and die on the beaches each summer but the locals consider that keeps the citifiedpeople away and they like that.Prime Hook Beach or Primehook beach depending on which map you use is far less expensive than Broadkill. There are far fewer modern homes there but the trend has started. Little by little the older, sometimes rough homes at Primehook are being refurbished. The waterfront homes at Primehook were always far larger and nicer than those at Broadkill. Many of them are not being removed, but are one by one, being restored.Broadkill and Primehook as well as Slaughter Beach are all surrounded by huge barriers of wetlands behind them and between them. Fishermen can surf fish in the bay but mostly it is just the view from these beaches that the residents enjoy and the lost in time lack of modern restrictions and commercialism. Slaughter Beach does have its own volunteer fire department which serves as the social focus of the town. But mostly there are just good neighbors and a laid back life available at these old beaches. If you want something else, you’ll have to drive a half hour or so to one of the small towns inland to find it.Bowers Beach is a strange and wonderful world out of place. For one thing you can’t get from south Bowers to north Bowers by car or foot – only by boat, unless you go many miles inland and back. The channel is only a hundred feet wide that divides the town but the two sides of town are remote from each other – except for the residents who just hop on a dingy and slip across. Bowers, on a busy day, in the height of the summer seasonmight see six or seven tourists in a day – but not usually that many.Each beach as you travel north up the bay has lower prices, less swimming enjoyment, less fishing as a rule and less government and restrictions. Each has its lovers and most people will have a love or hate response to any given one of the beaches. I love them all, each in a different way and will gladly help you find your utopian dream location. Just let us know when you are ready to choose!Copyright 2002-2005 by www.JodyHudson.comArticle is found at []

Media Law and the Rights of Women in India |

IntroductionWomen’s rights, as a term, typically refers to the freedoms inherently possessed by
women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized, ignored or illegitimately
suppressed by law, custom, and behavior in a particular society. These liberties are
grouped together and differentiated from broader notions of human rights because they
often differ from the freedoms inherently possessed by or recognized for men and boys,
and because activism surrounding this issue claims an inherent historical and traditional
bias against the exercise of rights by women.Issues commonly associated with notions of women’s rights include, though are not
limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to vote (universal suffrage); to
hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to
serve in the military; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital, parental and
religious rights. Today, women in most nations can vote, own property, work in many
different professions, and hold public office. These are some of the rights of the modern
woman. But women have not always been allowed to do these things, similar to the
experiences of the majority of men throughout history. Women and their supporters have
waged and in some places continue to wage long campaigns to win the same rights as
modern men and be viewed as equals in society.Evolution of women’s rights in IndiaPosition of women in ancient IndiaThe position of women since long has been pitiable in all aspects of life and her
subjection by males has been throughout a matter of history. She could not feel
independent, and act as so, barring a few exceptions.The women in Vedic period enjoyed equal status with men and independence in action.
Not only they had the place of honour, but were entitled to participate freely in social
activities. They were allowed to pursue the academic attainments and shared the family
life with full vigour. They were free to select their conjugal partner and exercised free
will in entering into the matrimonial bondage.The privileges that women enjoyed in the Vedic period were short lived and the position
of women began to decline from the latter Vedic period onwards. Post Vedic period saw
the emergence of Manusmrithi. The injunctions of Manu merged the wife’s individuality
with that of her husband and recommended strict seclusions for women and rigorous
discipline for widows. While glorifying motherhood and allowing women all freedom in
the management of the household, he permitted child marriage and polygamy. In the
Dharma-shastra women are unambiguously equated with the sudras. Even the Gita
places women, vaisyas and sudras in the same category and describes them as being of
sinful birth. Moreover women lead a life in abject misery. The women were denied the
right of equal opportunity in the field of education as well as in employment. The
inhuman system of .Sati. was prevalent as a compulsory custom. Widows were not only
precluded from remarrying, but they were also not allowed to live after the death of their
husband. There also existed the system of Purda, were the women had to cover her face
and body with a robe when she was to be seen in public. These were not only deprivation
of the rights of women but were also social evils which plagued the ancient Indian
society. The other evils which affected the women in ancient India were child marriage,
female infanticide, Dowry system etc.During the British rule, many new rules were being legislated to abolish certain social
evils which have direct impact on the rights of the women. Many social reformers during
this period including Raja Ram Mohan Roy worked hard for the abolition of the system
of sati and reinstated in its place the right of widows to remarry. More emphasis was
given to provide opportunities for improving the plight of women like improving
opportunities for female education etc.After Independence, most of the social evils like Sati system, child marriage, female
infanticide etc which affected the rights of women adversely were abolished. More laws
were enacted to provide women equal status with man in the field of education and
employment opportunities, laws were also enacted for preventing discrimination against
women on the basis of gender. Constitution of India also provides for provisions in order
to protect the rights of women. Reservations were made in the public sector to increase
the ratio of women population and to bring it in par with the male population. The Indian
penal code has also adopted stringent measures to deal with crimes against women. Penal
punishments were incorporated for dealing with the crimes of rape, marital violence
against women, prostitution etc. The Dowry Prohibition act also provides for punishment
in giving and accepting of Dowry. Recently a bill was enacted to prevent harassment of
women in their work places.International conventions for the protection and promotion of women rightsThe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women(CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an
international bill of rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines
what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action
to end such discrimination.The Convention defines discrimination against women as “…any distinction, exclusion
or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or
nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital
status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental
freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.”By accepting the Convention, States commit themselves to undertake a series of
measures to end discrimination against women in all forms, including:
To incorporate the principle of equality of men and women in their legal system, abolish
all discriminatory laws and adopt appropriate ones prohibiting discrimination against
women; Establish tribunals and other public institutions to ensure the effective protection
of women against discrimination; and to ensure elimination of all acts of discrimination
against women by persons, organizations or enterprises.The Convention provides the basis for realizing equality between women and men
through ensuring women’s equal access to, and equal opportunities in, political and public
life — including the right to vote and to stand for election — as well as education, health
and employment. States parties agree to take all appropriate measures, including
legislation and temporary special measures, so that women can enjoy all their human
rights and fundamental freedoms.The Convention is the only human rights treaty which affirms the reproductive rights of
women and targets culture and tradition as influential forces shaping gender roles and
family relations. It affirms women’s rights to acquire, change or retain their nationality
and the nationality of their children. States parties also agree to take appropriate measures
against all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of women.Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention are legally bound to put its
provisions into practice. They are also committed to submit national reports, at least
every four years, on measures they have taken to comply with their treaty obligations.United Nations Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed ConflictBearing in mind the need to provide special protection to women and children belonging
to the civilian population, solemnly proclaims this Declaration on the Protection of
Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict and calls for the strict
observance of the Declaration by all Member States:1. Attacks and bombings on the civilian population, inflicting incalculable suffering,
especially on women and children, who are the most vulnerable members of the
population, shall be prohibited, and such acts shall be condemned.2. The use of chemical and bacteriological weapons in the course of military operations
constitutes one of the most flagrant violations of the Geneva Protocol of 1925, the
Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the principles of international humanitarian law and
inflicts heavy losses on civilian populations, including defenceless women and children,
and shall be severely condemned.3. All States shall abide fully by their obligations under the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and
the Geneva Conventions of 1949, as well as other instruments of international law
relative to respect for human rights in armed conflicts, which offer important guarantees
for the protection of women and children.4. All efforts shall be made by States involved in armed conflicts, military operations in
foreign territories or military operations in territories still under colonial domination to
spare women and children from the ravages of war. All the necessary steps shall be taken
to ensure the prohibition of measures such as persecution, torture, punitive measures,
degrading treatment and violence, particularly against that part of the civilian population
that consists of women and children.5. All forms of repression and cruel and inhuman treatment of women and children,
including imprisonment, torture, shooting, mass arrests, collective punishment,
destruction of dwellings and forcible eviction, committed by belligerents in the course of
military operations or in occupied territories shall be considered criminal.6. Women and children belonging to the civilian population and finding themselves in
circumstances of emergency and armed conflict in the struggle for peace, selfdetermination,national liberation and independence, or who live in occupied territories,
shall not be deprived of shelter, food, medical aid or other inalienable rights, in
accordance with the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Declaration of the Rights of the Child or other
instruments of international law.United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against WomenThe declaration mainly aims at protecting women from torture. For the purposes of this
Declaration, the term “violence against women” means any act of gender-based violence
that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering
to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty,
whether occurring in public or in private life.Article 2Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to, the
following:( a ) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including
battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence,
marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women,
non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation;( b ) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general
community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in
educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution;( c ) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State,
wherever it occurs.The Declaration aims at making the world a safer destination for women and to enjoy
their rights without any encumbrances.ACLU Women’s Rights ProjectSince 1972, the ACLU Women’s Rights Project has worked to empower women and
advance equality. Many people, before and since, have contributed to our effort.
The Women’s Rights Project focuses on four core areas:EmploymentWRP advocates on behalf of low-wage immigrant women workers, works to eliminate
welfare disparities, and seeks to end workplace discrimination.Violence Against Women
WRP is committed to advancing battered women’s civil rights, assisting women in their
efforts to keep themselves and their children safe, and challenging the housing and
employment discrimination experienced by so many battered women, especially low income and women of color.Criminal Justice
WRP addresses the harms to women and girls caught up in the criminal and juvenile
justice systems, including their conditions of confinement, and the impact of sentencing
and incarceration policies on women and their children.
EducationWRP is dedicated to ensuring that public schools do not become sex-segregated and that
girls and boys receive equal educational opportunities.Legislations in India for the Protection of Women
The major women specific legislations in India are the following:The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956- The Immoral Traffic act aimed at
preventing immoral activities using women. It provides punishment for women
trafficking, carrying on the business of prostitution, keeping a brothel etc.Role of Media in the protection of women’s rightsMedia plays a very important role in creating awareness among the women community
about their inherent rights, which they were deprived of for many centuries. Media plays
the role of a saviour in whom the power to protect and enhance the rights of the women is
arrogated. Media through its visual broadcasting should project the abject and miserable
lives and living conditions of women in rural India. More documentaries and screen plays
projecting women.s rights should be aired through visual media. Media plays an
important role in coordinating the activities of social workers who play an important role
in striving to establish women.s rights. Print media through various journals meant
exclusively for women entails a place in this men dominated world. Media has certain
forums specifically for the promotion and advancement of the interest of women folk.
Media through its various agencies helps to agitate and voice against any intrusion into
the rights of the women. In the modern age crimes against women have also became very
rampant, media was an active tool in voicing against such acts and bringing such illegal
acts to the eyes of the concerned authorities and thus keeping the issue as a hot spot
which requires urgent attention. Media also acts as an effective tool in educating people
against the commission of such atrocious acts against the women community and thus
preserving their purity and sacredness. Media also through various debates and
discussions help the legislators in identifying new areas for legislating laws for the
protection of women.Negative effects of media on the rights of womenMedia has both positive as well as negative effects on the rights of women. Media has
been a cause for the increase in infringement of the right to privacy of a woman. Media
through obscene publication and visual presentations have demeaned the dignity of
women in the modern society. Modern films tend to glorify violence and as a result
infuse such ideas in the minds of the youth. Media has played a significant role in the
promotion and circulation of pornographic materials which in turn will result in
trafficking of women, flesh trade etc. Media is a corner stone in shaping the lives of the
new generation, as majority of the modern generation are glued to them. Media through
films and publications tend to drastically revolutionise the minds of the people without
their knowledge and awareness. Hence there has to be a strict check and control on the
contents that are aired and published through the media. It was this concept which paved
the way for the development of media laws.Media laws and its Evolution in IndiaIn India the Press is free but subject to certain reasonable restrictions imposed by the
Constitution of India, 1950, as amended (“Constitution”). Before the impact of
globalisation was felt, the mass media was wholly controlled by the government, which
let the media project only what the government wanted the public to see and in a way in
which it wanted the public to see it. However, with the onset of globalisation and
privatisation, the situation has undergone a humongous change.Before the invention of communication satellites, communication was mainly in the
form of national media, both public and private, in India and abroad. Then came the
‘transnational media’ with the progress of communication technologies like Satellite
delivery and ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), the outcome: local TV, global
films and global information systems.In such an era of media upsurge, it becomes an absolute necessity to impose certain legal
checks and bounds on transmission and communication. In the due course of this article,
we would discuss the various aspects of media and the relevant legal checks and bounds
governing them.Historical Perspective of Mass Media LawsMass Media laws in India have a long history and are deeply rooted in the country.s
colonial experience under British rule. The earliest regulatory measures can be traced
back to 1799 when Lord Wellesley promulgated the Press Regulations, which had the
effect of imposing pre-censorship on an infant newspaper publishing industry. The onset
of 1835 saw the promulgation of the Press Act, which undid most of, the repressive
features of earlier legislations on the subject.Thereafter on 18th June 1857, the government passed the .Gagging Act., which among
various other things, introduced compulsory licensing for the owning or running of
printing presses; empowered the government to prohibit the publication or circulation of
any newspaper, book or other printed material and banned the publication or
dissemination of statements or news stories which had a tendency to cause a furore
against the government, thereby weakening its authority.Then followed the .Press and Registration of Books Act. in 1867 and which continues to
remain in force till date. Governor General Lord Lytton promulgated the .Vernacular
Press Act. of 1878 allowing the government to clamp down on the publication of
writings deemed seditious and to impose punitive sanctions on printers and publishers
who failed to fall in line. In 1908, Lord Minto promulgated the .Newspapers (Incitement
to Offences) Act, 1908 which authorized local authorities to take action against the editor
of any newspaper that published matter deemed to constitute an incitement to rebellion.
However, the most significant day in the history of Media Regulations was the 26th of
January 1950 . the day on which the Constitution was brought into force. The colonial
experience of the Indians made them realise the crucial significance of the .Freedom of
Press.. Such freedom was therefore incorporated in the Constitution; to empower the
Press to disseminate knowledge to the masses and the Constituent Assembly thus,
decided to safeguard this .Freedom of Press. as a fundamental right. Although, the Indian
Constitution does not expressly mention the liberty of the press, it is evident that the
liberty of the press is included in the freedom of speech and expression under Article 19
(1)(a). It is however pertinent to mention that, such freedom is not absolute but is
qualified by certain clearly defined limitations under Article 19(2) in the interests of the
public.It is necessary to mention here that, this freedom under Article 19(1)(a) is not only
cribbed, cabined and confined to newspapers and periodicals but also includes pamphlets,
leaflets, handbills, circulars and every sort of publication which affords a vehicle of
information and opinion:Thus, although the freedom of the press is guaranteed as a fundamental right, it is
necessary for us to deal with the various laws governing the different areas of media so as
to appreciate the vast expanse of media laws.Regulations in print media
The Freedom Of Press and the Freedom Of Expression can be regarded as the very basis
of a democratic form of government. Every business enterprise is involved in the laws of
the nation, the state and the community in which it operates. Newspaper publishers find
themselves more .hemmed in. by legal restrictions than many other businesses do .
despite the fact that the freedom of press is protected by the Indian constitution. The
various Acts, which have to be taken into consideration when dealing with the
regulations imposed upon the Print Media, are:_ The Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 . This Act regulates printing presses
and newspapers and makes registration with an appointed Authority compulsory for all
printing presses._ _The Press (Objectionable Matters) Act, 1951 . This enactment provides against the
printing and publication of incitement to crime and other objectionable matters._ _The Newspaper (Prices and Pages) Act, 1956 . This statute empowers the Central
Government to regulate the price of newspapers in relation to the number of pages and
size and also to regulate the allocation of space to be allowed for advertising matter.Regulations in broadcasting
The broadcast media was under complete monopoly of the Government of India. Private
organizations were involved only in commercial advertising and sponsorships of
programmes. However, in Secretary, Ministry of I&B v. CAB1, the Supreme Court clearly
differed from the aforementioned monopolistic approach and emphasized that, every
citizen has a right to telecast and broadcast to the viewers/listeners any important event
through electronic media, television or radio and also provided that the Government had
no monopoly over such electronic media as such monopolistic power of the Government
was not mentioned anywhere in the Constitution or in any other law prevailing in the
This judgment, thus, brought about a great change in the position prevailing in the
broadcast media, and such sector became open to the citizens.
1 (1995) 2 SCC 161Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995 basically regulates the operation of
Cable Television in the territory of India and regulates the subscription rates and the total
number of total subscribers receiving programmes transmitted in the basic tier. In
pursuance of the Cable Television Network (Regulation) (Amendment) Bill, 2002, the
Central Government may make it obligatory for every cable operator to transmit or
retransmit programme of any pay channel through an addressable system as and when the
Central Government so notifies. Such notification may also specify the number of free to
air channels to be included in the package of channels forming the basic service tier
film . India is one of the largest producers of motion pictures in the world.
Encompassing three major spheres of activity . production, distribution and exhibition,
the industry has an all-India spread, employing thousands of people and entertaining
millions each year. The various laws in force regulating the making and screening of
films are: -The Cinematograph Act, 1952 . The Cinematograph Act of 1952 has been passed to
make provisions for a certification of cinematographed films for exhibitions by means of
Cinematograph. Under this Act, a Board of Film Censors (now renamed Central Board
of Film Certification) with advisory panels at regional centres is empowered to examine
every film and sanction it whether for unrestricted exhibition or for exhibition restricted
to adults. The Board is also empowered to refuse to sanction a film for public exhibition.
In K. A. Abbas v. Union of India, the petitioner for the first time challenged the validity of
censorship as violative of his fundamental right of speech and expression. The Supreme
Court however observed that, pre-censorship of films under the Cinematograph Act was
justified under Article 19(2) on the ground that films have to be treated separately from
other forms of art and expression because a motion picture was able to stir up emotion
more deeply and thus, classification of films between two categories .A. (for adults only)
and .U. (for all) was brought about2.
2 AIR 1971 SC 481Advertising
Advertising communication is a mix of arts and facts subservient to ethical principles. In
order to be consumer-oriented, advertisement will have to be truthful and ethical. It
should not mislead the consumer. If it so happens, the credibility is lost.In order to enforce an ethical regulating code, the Advertising Standards Council of India
was set up. Inspired by a similar code of the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) UK,
ASCI follows the following basic guidelines in order to achieve the acceptance of fair
advertising practices in the interest of the consumer: -· To ensure the truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made by
advertisements and to safe guard against misleading advertising;· To ensure that advertisement are not offensive to generally accepted standards of public
decency;· To safeguard against indiscriminate use of advertising for promotion of products which
are regarded as hazardous to society or to individuals to a degree or of a type which is
unacceptable to society at large; and· To ensure that advertisements observe fairness in competition so that the consumers
need to be informed on choices in the market places and canons of generally accepted
competitive behaviour in business are both served.Media laws and its relation to the Rights of the WomenMedia Law has its applicability in ensuring and preserving the rights of the women.
Media has been regulated with regard to its right in publishing and broadcasting by
enacting the media laws. These laws have a direct impetus to the protection of women.s
rights. Media Laws through its enactments regulating the print media takes away from the
press the absolute power vested in them previously. Media laws protect the women.s
right by preventing the print media from publishing articles and journals that goes
detrimental to the interest of the women folk and intrude their privacy.

Leadership and the Rise and Fall of Nations in Bible Times |

This section is a historical reflection of specific periods of two nations in Bible times. These periods would be periods of success and failures. The goal of the reflection is basically to identify the roles played by the leadership during these periods and see the relationship between the roles and the rise or fall of the nations. The nations that will be discussed are Israel and Egypt.THE RISE OF ISRAEL UNDER GOOD LEADERSHIPDuring the long history of Israel between the time of the exodus from Egypt and the return to Judah from Babylon captivity, there had been times that Israel had prospered as a nation. The periods of prosperity and success can be identified with specific leaders or leaderships. Three of these leaders-David, Solomon and Nehemiah will now be discussed.DavidThe biblical records show that David came to the throne about 1000BC and reigned for approximately forty years. Ted W Engstrom made two observations about the forty years reign of David. First, he pointed out that David fought many wars.1 It was observed from the biblical records that David took up leadership in Israel at a time of political instability. Israel had many enemies and some were afraid of Israel becoming a powerful nation, which will subsequently dominate them. In fact, when the Philistines heard that David had been made king they came to attack him. For this reason David had to make his throne secure from Israel’s enemies. One can therefore understand why in his first campaign as king he captured the walled city of Zion or Jerusalem and made it his capital. Without political stability there would hardly be any form of development in a nation. It should be observed that political stability is not only an external matter but also an internal matter. For this reason, David did not only fight the enemy nations of Israel but also established a capital to exercise his rule and control over the people. Second, Engstrom pointed out that David established international relationships with other nations, citing Hiram of Tyre as one of them.2 A leader who looks forward to development and progress in his country seeks relationship with other countries that will help him achieve his goal. Later on, under Solomon’s government the benefits of these relationships will be better seen. David took special precautions to handle the political situations of the nation because it can directly affect the nation positively or negatively.William Dumbrell also observed that David moved the Ark of the Lord from Kiriath-Jearim to the capital he had established. He said this was to centralize all of Israel’s sacred traditions in his new capital. Dumbrell further observed that the move was a blatant political one.3 It is noteworthy that one cannot completely separate religion from politics. The unity of a nation can to some extent be maintained under the banner of religion.Political rest or stability and religious unity of a nation establishes the foundation for her economic prosperity. This was not so for the nation of Israel under the leadership of Saul. So, David who succeeded Saul changed the potentially bleak destiny of the nation to a positive one. David also built up the resources and made preparations for the development of the nation. One example is his provision for building the temple.SolomonSolomon was David’s son who succeeded him as King. John Maxwell observed that Solomon took a good kingdom and turned it to a great kingdom.4 A reflection on the state of the kingdom David left for Solomon, gives one an understanding of what Maxwell meant by good kingdom. The biblical records in the first three chapters of first Kings state that Solomon himself possesses both wealth and wisdom as he began to rule. Also, Israel had become a major military force, and in addition David had accumulated wealth and some of the materials for the building of the Temple. Solomon achieved a great deal in assuming leadership. What then did he do for the nation for Maxwell to have said he turned a good kingdom to a great one. Maxwell pointed out what impressive administration that he built, and the fact that he made use of the talents of his twelve governors. Also, about the alliances he built with neighboring powers, the trade relationships he established, his building projects and extensive defensive fortifications for the city.5 There is no question about the fact that the nation prospered under Solomon. The nation enjoyed peace and saw great development. It should be noted that the political stability and the religious unity achieved during the reign of David laid the foundations for Solomon’s success.NehemiahJohn White observed that the setting of the book of Nehemiah is the rebuilding of a nation. It may be misleading to consider the setting of the book as the rebuilding of the Jerusalem wall and gates. To make his point, White gave a historical reflection of what happened to the nation prior to Nehemiah’s leadership. He said the Babylonians had plundered Jerusalem and the southern Kingdom of Judah, and exiled the citizens about a hundred and fifty years before Nehemiah came. But when Babylon fell to the Persians, King Cyrus reversed Babylonian policy and allowed some Jewish groups to return back to Jerusalem in 538 BC. However these people were not able to make the city defensible again. There was political instability, poor economy and a collapse of the true Jewish religion and tradition, which usually unites the people as a nation. It was from this background that Nehemiah exercised leadership.6The nation of Israel at that time had no future hope. They seemed to have been left at the mercies of their enemies. Under Nehemiah’s leadership the situation changed. The wall and gates of Jerusalem were built, but not only that the future of the nation was changed. This was because the nation began to experience security and political stability, unity of the people as a result of religious awakening, and prosperity once again. Ted W. Engstrom observed that these achievements should be ascribed to Nehemiah because as a leader he displayed great courage in the face of much opposition, had deep concern for his people, and exhibited by his insight, tact, impartiality, and decisiveness.7 The way Nehemiah handled the political situation, the religious atmosphere and the economy, changed the destiny of the nation at that point in time.THE FALL OF ISRAEL UNDER BAD LEADERSHIPThis section is a reflection of the three hundred years of Israel’s history under the Judges. Eugene H. Merrill noted that the three hundred or so years of the history of Israel under the Judges were marked by political, moral, and spiritual anarchy and deterioration. The situation was so pervasive that even the sons of Eli, the high priest at the end of the 12th century, had completely apostatized, and had used their priestly office for their own gain and licentious pursuits?8 One may wonder what happened to this powerful nation which left Egypt under the leadership of Moses, conquered and took possession of the Promised Land under Joshua’s leadership.God raised up many Judges to rule Israel during this period of time. Duane F Lindsey pointed out that these Judges were primarily military and civil leaders, with strict judicial functions included as appropriate.9 Joyce Peel highlighted some of the problems for Israel’s failure. She noted that the various tribes failed to drive out all the Canaanites from the land. Also, the pure worship of Yahweh was contaminated by the idolatry of the Cananites.10 Peel, like other Bible commentators, acknowledged that the nation failed during the period in question and the areas of failures that she highlighted can be seen as political and religious. It follows that once a nation fails in those two areas, there is an obvious economic failure, and this is evident in the book of Judges. Peel made a striking statement as she concludes her commentary on the book of Judges. She observed that Judges 21:25 is a diagnosis of the troubles that were past, and a pointer of the remedy lying ahead.11 Judges 21:25 reads: “In those days Israel had no king everyone did as he saw fit….” This verse points to the fact that lack of good sustainable leadership was the cause of Israel’s failures. Under these conditions Israel was doomed for complete destruction had it not been for the timely intervention of God.
THE RISE OF EGYPT UNDER GOOD LEADERSHIPThere has been a series of rising and falling of the nation of Egypt. In this section, however, a particular period is in focus-the period the nation experienced seven years of agricultural bounty, which was followed by seven years severe of famine. R K Harrison, in his article discussed this period in Egypt’s history. Citing the biblical records in Genesis, he said the ruling Pharaoh had prior knowledge of the seven years of agricultural bounty, which will be followed by seven years of severe famine. This knowledge came to him through a dream that was interpreted for him by Joseph. Joseph followed up his interpretation bay advising Pharaoh to ‘look for a man discerning and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt’. Pharaoh and his men accepted the advice, but appointed Joseph as second in command over all Egypt, and gave him the responsibility to plan for those fourteen years 12. The strategy that Joseph devised saves the nation and surrounding nations from seven years of severe famine. Pharaoh’s leadership must be commended here. Many political leaders like Pharaoh, have had knowledge of a failing economy, or of problems in their country and failed to take action. Pharaoah’s political action was very tough-he appointed a foreigner, a slave and prisoner for that matter, over all other officials in Egypt. Pharaoh certainly would be aware of the potential danger, but because that action was really necessary for the nation to survive the period, he was willing to take the challenge. Also, a relationship between religion and politics can be seen. Pharaoh in the first place didn’t question the dream from God, nor the interpretation given by the godly man.The effects of those seven years of famine could have been devastating for the nation. However, good leadership changed the destiny of the nation at that time.THE FALL OF EGYPT UNDER BAD LEADERSHIPAn another important period in the nation of Egypt’s history was the period preceding the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. The Egyptians had prospered and developed their nation by using the Israelites as slaves. As a result of the free labor the nation was exploiting, Pharaoh Amenhotep II refused to let the Israelites leave his country. William Dumbrell observed from the narrative that pharaoh was warned before any of the plague, which devastated the nation, was commanded by Moses. According to Dumbrell, in the first three plagues, God showed his supremacy over the magicians of Egypt. In the following three plagues (Insects, pestilence, boils), God showed his presence in Egypt, making a distinction between the Israelites and Egyptians. In the next three plagues (hail, locust, darkness) God emphasizes his incomparability. Pharaoh’s unreasonableness must give way before Yahweh’s manifested power.13 Pharaoh belongs to a nation which reverence supernatural powers. He was aware that what was happening was far beyond the natural, but he still clung to his ways. He resisted until the economy of the nation was destroyed, and after the tenth plague led his army to total destruction pursuing the Israelites. He had advisers but was determined to do things his own way. His actions were clearly that of a present day dictator, and one can see how such leaders can destroy a nation. It can be seen, that when politics or political powers, religion and the economy of a nation are not handled properly, the nation falls,ConclusionThe examples of Israel and Egypt cited in this article regarding good and bad governance typify a situation that is still prevalent in our modern world – Africa in particular and the so-called third world in general. The entire Bible is full of teaching concerning the relationship between righteous rule and peace. The opposite is, unrighteous rule and turmoil.True religiosity rests on justice – “He that oppresseth the poor reproacheth his but he that honoureth him hath mercy on the poor.” National progress rests on righteousness – “Righteousness exalteth a nation: but sin is a reproach to any people” (Prov. 14:31; 34).End Notes[1] Enstrom, Ted. W., The Making of a Christian Leader: How to Develop Management and Human Relations Skills (Michigan: Zonderman Publishing House, 1976) p. 32.2 William Dumbrell, The Faith if Israel: Its Expression in the Books of the Old Testament (Leicester. Inter-Varsity Press, 1992), p.813 John C. Maxwell, The 21 Most Powerful Minutes in Leader’s Day: Revitalize Your Spirit and
Empower Your Leadership (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2000) p. 2634 Ibid. p. 2635 Ibid, p. 2636 John White, Excellence In Leadership: The Pattern of Nehemiah (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1986), p. 107 Ted W Engstrom, The Making of a Christian Leader: How to Develop Management and Human Relation Skills (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), p. 34.8 Eugene H. Merrill, I Samuel: The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado: Chariot Victor Publishing, 19985), p. 431.9Duane F Lindsey, Judges: The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado: Chariot Victor Publishing, 1985) p. 374.10 Joyce Peel, A Journey Through The Old Testament: The Story of God’s Relationship with Man. Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993) p. 5811 Ibid, p. 6212 R. K. Harrison, The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1982), p.13 William Dumbrell, The Faith of Israel: Its Expression in the Books of the Old Testament (Leciester:Inter-Varsity Press, 1992), p. 32